Mandragora officinarum - Mandrake
Mandrake is unquestionably the most famous magical plant, and the most widely used psychoactive of ancient through medieval times. Mandrake use is much less common today, but certain parts of the world still value its medicinal and magical properties.

Home
  • Why Entheology.org?
    Our simple and concise mission statement including information regarding submissions. We pay you for reprint rights on any research paper we'd like to include here at Edoto...just click for details.

  •  
  • Plants of the Gods
    Absolute essential read for anyone interested in sacred entheogens. Includes detailed history and preparation of 97 psychoactive and/or sacred plants.

  •  
  • Annual Causes of Death in America
    The REAL truth is the most sobering statistic.

  •  
  • Annual Causes of Death in America
    The REAL truth is the most sobering statistic.

  •  
  • Extracting Salvinorin from Salvia Divinorum
    This is a concise extraction method for educational purposes only.

  •  
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
    Extremely important information regarding MAOI's, complete with Diet Card.

  •  
  • Traditional Quid Preparation
    Information regarding the traditional praparation of Salvia divinorum for divination by the Mazatecs.

  •  
  • Pharmacology of Bufotenine
    Exhaustive case study regarding Bufotenine, 5-MEO-DMT, and related substances.

  •  
  • Study on Calea Zacatechichi (Dream Herb)
    Calea zacatechichi is a plant of extensive popular medicinal use in Mexico. An infusion of the plant is has been reported to have psychotropic properties that have been clinically-proven to induce dreaming, and increase the frequency of dreams as well.

  •  
  • In Depth Report Regarding DMT
    In this article I wish to draw attention to a strange property of DMT which sets it apart from other psychedelics, namely, it's ability to place users in touch with a realm that is apparently inhabited by discarnate entities of an intelligent nature.

  •  
  • The Science of Ethnobotany
    Ethnobotanists share two decades of experience living with the indigenous peoples of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia.

  •  
  • Entheogens and the Future of Religion
    The book should prove to be a welcome complement to other serious studies in mysticism (including those that take a fundamentally different tack).

  •  
  • Tukanoans
    The Tukanoans are one of the most known cultures that utilize ayahuasca as their sacrament. They are one of about 70 tribes who share this practice.

  •  
  • Ayahuasca, shamanism, and curanderismo in the Andes
    The term ayahuasca comes from the Quechua, meaning literally "the vine of souls," although it is also called "the visionary vine" or the "vine of death." The folk term refers to the botanical species of liana known as Banisteriopsis Caapi , which is also

  •  
  • The Santo Daime Religion
    In this paper, the reader will be introduced to the sect of Santo Daime, a Brazilian religion which combines Christianity with the indigenous practice of using ayahuasca, a native entheogenic plant.

  •  
  • Santo Daime Church Wins Court Case
    Freedom of Religion versus the Psychotropic Substance Treaty - The Verdict

  •  
  • Ayahuasca: Human Consciousness and the Spirits of Nature
    Anything with the name Ralph Metzner even remotely attached to it is a safe buy. An elder statesman responsible for dramatic shifts in consciousness within this nation and throughout the world...

  •  
  • DMT: The Spirit Moecule
    Covering a groundbreaking psychedelic substance that is actually found in human cerebrospinal fluid, Rick Strassman tells a first-person story of his research on the profoundly mysterious substance dimethltryptamine (DMT).

  •  
  • The World As You Dream It: Shamanic Teachings from the Amazon and Andes
    John has done a lot to honor and preserve the indigenous teachings and the ethnobotanical environment.

  •  
  • Shapeshifting: Shamanic Techniques for Global and Personal Transformation
    John has done a lot to honor and preserve the indigenous teachings and the ethnobotanical environment.

  •  
  • Canada to Decriminalize Cannabis
    The Liberal government is preparing to move ahead in the new year with legislation to decriminalize marijuana, Justice Minister Martin Cauchon said yesterday.

  •  
  • Solubility of Active Components – Quick Guide
    Brief discussion on active components of plants and whether they were traditionally extracted into alcohol, water, or other solvents.

  •  
  • Amanita Muscaria
    This mushroom could very well be human's oldest hallucinogen, as it has been identified as Soma of ancient India.

  •  
  • Anadenanthera - Yopo, Cebil, Villca
    YOPO or PARICA (Anadenanthera peregrina or Piptadenia peregrina) is a South American tree of the bean family, Leguminosae. A potent hallucinogenic snuff is prepared from the seeds of this tree.

  •  
  • Argyreia nervosa - Hawaiian Baby Woodrose
    Hawaiian Baby Woodrose seeds are perhaps one of the least understood of modern-day entheogens and exotic botanicals. There is much controversy in regards to its true place in Shamanic and traditional history outside of its native culture and home; India.

  •  
  • Argyreia nervosa - Hawaiian Baby Woodrose
    Hawaiian Baby Woodrose seeds are perhaps one of the least understood of modern-day entheogens and exotic botanicals. There is much controversy in regards to its true place in Shamanic and traditional history outside of its native culture and home; India.

  •  
  • Banisteriopsis caapi - Ayahuasca
    Used in the western half of the Amazon Valley and by isolated tribes on the Pacific slopes of the Columbian and Ecuadorian Andes.

  •  
  • Brugmansia aurea - Golden Angel's Trumpet
    Golden Angel’s Trumpet is native to the highland areas around the Andes mountain range in South America. It is very well known throughout southern Columbia, Ecuador and Peru. It has also been transplanted throughout Mexico and Central America, and it is f

  •  
  • Brugmansia sanguinea - Blood-Red Angel's Trumpet
    Bloodred Angel’s Trumpet is native to the midland and lowland areas around the Andes mountain range in South America. It grows wildly throughout Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru. It has also been found growing at sea level in Chile. The plant’s

  •  
  • Brunfelsia grandiflora - Brunfelsia
    Brunfelsia Grandiflora is a tree-like shrub indigenous to the tropical regions of South America, ranging from Venezuela to Bolivia and it is especially abundant in Brazil and on the Caribbean Islands.The plant’s psychoactive compounds are found in the lea

  •  
  • Caesalpinia sepiaria - Yun Shih
    This plant was reputedly used in China as hallucinogen, this is nearly all we know about this plant.

  •  
  • Calea zacatechichi - Dream Herb
    Calea zacatechichi is a plant used by the Chontal Indians of Mexico to obtain divinatory messages during dreaming.

  •  
  • Cannabis sativa - Marijuana
    The original home of Cannabis is thought to be central Asia, but it has spread around the globe with the exception of Arctic regions and areas of wet tropical forests.

  •  
  • Areca catechu - Betel Nut
    Betel nuts have been used as a drug for thousands of years. The practiced is thought to have started in south-east Asia and there is archaeological evidence to support this view.

  •  
  • Claviceps purpurea - Ergot Alkaloid
    Ergot: A Fungus Disease Of Rye That Contains LSD

  •  
  • Conocybe siligineoides - Conocybe
    Conocybe Siligineoides is a sacred fungus endemic only to Mexico.

  •  
  • Coleus blumei - Painted Nettle
    COLEUS (Coleus pumas and C. blumei) is cultivated by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico, who reputedly employ the leaves in the some way as they use the leaves of Salvia divinorum

  •  
  • Coryphantha compacta - Pincushion Cactus
    C. compacta is believed to be the Tarahumara híkuri known as "bakánawa." Bakánawa, like most híkuri, is both respected and feared as a god, and considered to have a soul and human emotions.

  •  
  • Cymbopogon densiflorus - Lemongrass
    In Tanganyika the native medicine men smoke the flowers of Cymbopogon densiflorus alone or with tobacco to cause dreams which they believe foretell the future.

  •  
  • Cystisus canariensis - Genista
    GENISTA (Cytisus canariensis) is employed as an hallucinogen in the magic practices of Yaqui medicine men in northern Mexico.

  •  
  • Damiana Leaf - Turnera diffusa
    Damiana is a small shrub with aromatic leaves found throughout Mexico, Central and South America and the West Indies. The botanical name of the plant describes its use as an aphrodisiac.

  •  
  • Datura metel - Datura
    The Indian Thorn Apple - Datura metel - was first documented in Sanskrit literature. The Arabic physician Avicenna touted the importance of its medicinal applications as well as prescribed the exact amount of dosage to the Arabs, who categorized the plan

  •  
  • Nicotiana Rustica - Mapucho
    Mapacho is considered very sacred by Amazonian shamans and is employed alone (by tabaqueros) or in combination with other plants in shamanic practices.

  •  
  • Desfontainia spinosa - Taique
    Desfontainia spinosa, a beautiful shrub 1-6 feet in height, has glossy dark green leaves, resembling those of Christmas holly, and tubular red flowers with a yellow tip.

  •  
  • Duboisia hopwoodii - Pituri Bush
    The pituri plant had enormous economic value to the Aborigines. Pituri roads existed with extensive trade networks that extended from northern to southern desert areas, which permitted Aborigines to trade the plant.

  •  
  • Epithelantha micromeris - Hikuli Mulato
    Considered a "false peyote" which is often called "hikuli mulato," the "dark skinned peyote".

  •  
  • Galbulimima belgreveana - Agara
    The use of Galbulimima belgraveana in Papua New Guinea has been reported in several popular books on psychoactive plants. The chewing of Galbulimima belgraveana bark and Homalomena sp. leaves (ereriba) has been reported to induce visions and a dream-like

  •  
  • Heimia salicifolia - Sinicuichi (Sinicuiche)
    The natives believe that sinicuichi (sinicuiche) has sacred or supernatural qualities, since they hold that it helps them recall events which took place many years earlier as if they had happened yesterday; others assert that they are able, with sinicuich

  •  
  • Hyoscyamus albus - Yellow Henbane
    Hyoscyamus albus, or yellow henbane, was the most important tool in ancient times of inducing trances and providing visions to oracles and soothsayers. Today, the plant is still treasured in many parts of the world for its medicinal and psychoactive prope

  •  
  • Hyoscyamus niger - Black Henbane
    Black Henbane was used as a ritual plant by the pre-Indo-European peoples of central Europe. In Australia, handfuls of henbane seeds were discovered in a ceremonial urn along with bones and snail shells, dating back to the early Bronze Age. During the Pal

  •  
  • Ipomoea violacea - Morning Glory
    Regardless of what you’ve read anywhere else; Morning Glory has a rich place in the history of psychedelic and visionary use in historical traditions across multiple cultures, including the Chontal Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico, and the highly evolved Aztec C

  •  
  • Kaempferia galanga - Galanga
    Beyond the high content of essential oil in the rhizome, little is known of the chemistry of the plant. Hallucinogenic activity might possibly be due to constituents of the essential oils.

  •  
  • Leonotis leonurus - Lion's Tail
    Smoked by the Hottentot tribes smoke the resinous flowering tops and leaves from this plant as a euphoriant.

  •  
  • Leonurus sibiricus - Siberian Motherwort
    Leaves from Siberian Motherwort (Marihuanilla) are collected while the plant is in bloom, dried, and then smoked in either a pipe or with rolling papers. No toxic dosage is known and typically 1 to 2 grams of the dried leaf is enough for one rolled cigare

  •  
  • Botany of Peyote (Lophophora williamsii)
    The peyote cactus is a flowering plant of the family Cactaceae, which is a group of fleshy, spiny plants found primarily in the dry regions of the New World.

  •  
  • Lycoperdon mixtecorum - Bovista
    PUFFBALLS (Lycoperdon mixtecorum and L. marginotum) are used by the Mixtec Indicins Of Oaxaca, Mexico as auditory hallucinogens.

  •  
  • Maquira sclerophylia - Rapa dos Indios
    In the Pariana region of the central Amazon in Brazil, the indians formerly prepared a hallucinogenic snuff of the dried fruits. The snuff was taken in tribal ceremonials, but encroachment of civilization has obliterated it's use.

  •  
  • Mimosa hostilis - Jurema Tree
    The preparation of the brew from fresh Jurema root bark for trance possession rituals, is, in itself, a complex ritual of the Atikum tribe.

  •  
  • Mitragyna speciosa - Kratom
    Kratom is traditionally only used in Thailand, although some use in Malaysia has been reported. Use dates far enough back that its beginning can't be determined. It is often used as a substitute for opium when opium is unavailable, or to moderate opium ad

  •  
  • Mucuna pruriens - Cowhage
    M. pruriens is a leguminous climbing plant, with long, slender branches, alternate, lanceolate leaves on hairy petioles, 6 to 12 inches long, with large, white flowers, growing in clusters of two or three, with a bluish-purple, butterfly-shaped corolla.

  •  
  • Nymphaea caerulea - Blue Lily / Blue Lotus
    Creating a feeling of well being, euphoria and ecstasy, Nymphaea caerulea (blue lotus) is a water plant growing on the shores of lakes and rivers.

  •  
  • Oncidium ceboletta - Hikuri Orchid
    Oncidium longifolium is known as a peyote replacement among the Tarahumara.

  •  
  • Macropiper Excelsum - Maori Kava
    This subspecies from the New Zealand mainland is the variety used by the Maori in their medicines and rituals and belongs to the kava family.

  •  
  • Panaeolus spinctrinus - Hoop-Petticoat
    Under construction.

  •  
  • Panaeolus subbalteatus - Dark-rimmed Mottlegill
    Panaeolus subbalteatus is a psilocybin-containing mushroom that also has large amounts of serotonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan, which may account for its reportedly relatively mellow effects.

  •  
  • Pandanus
    Natives of New Guinea employ the fruit of an unidentified species of Pandanus for hallucinogenic purposes, unfortunately little is known of this use.

  •  
  • Peganum harmala - Syrian Rue
    The seeds, as well as the roots, of P. harmala contain a mixture of the harmala alkaloids, armine and harmaline. When admnstered to humans, the harmala alkaloids are serotonin antagonists, CNS stimulants, hallucinogens and extemely potent, short term MAO

  •  
  • Pelecyphora aselliformis - Peyotillo
    P. aselliformis is a well known medicinal peyote sold in the markets of San Luís Potosí, Mexico, and is used as a remedy for fevers and rheumatic pains. Extracts have also been shown to have antibiotic activity.

  •  
  • Pernettya furens - Hierba loca
    The fruit of tagili, of Ecuador, is well recognized as poisonous, capable of inducing hallucinations and other psychic alterations as well as affecting the motor nerves.

  •  
  • Petunia violaceae - Shanin
    SHANIN (Petunia violacea) is one of the most recently reported hallucinogens. It is taken by the Indians in Ecuador to induce the sensation of flight.

  •  
  • Petunia violaceae - Shanin
    SHANIN (Petunia violacea) is one of the most recently reported hallucinogens. It is taken by the Indians in Ecuador to induce the sensation of flight.

  •  
  • Phalaris arundinacea - Red Canary Grass
    The plant contains DMT, beta-carbolines, 5-MEO-demethyltryptamine, and trace amounts of bufotenine.

  •  
  • Phragmites australis - Common Reed
    A perenniel grass with a long association with humans, the common reed is native to Eurasia and Africa but has spread all over the world with people, even though it has practically never been cultivated.

  •  
  • Psilocybe cubensis - San Isidro
    Psilocybe cubensis is distinguished by its slightly curved caps which can grow up to 8 cm in diameter, and feature a yellow or golden center. Like all mushrooms containing psilocybin, Psilocybe cubensis provides a potent visionary experience, often with s

  •  
  • Psilocybe cyanescens - Wavy Cap
    Psilocybe cyanescens is a psilocybin/psilocin-containing mushroom most commonly found in the Pacific Northwest, but the most potent varieties grown in and are used by mushroom cults in central Europe.

  •  
  • Psilocybe mexicana - Teonanacatl
    Few plants of the gods have ever been held in greater reverence than the sacred mushrooms of Mexico. So hallowed were these fungi that the Aztecs called them Teonancatl ("divine flesh") and used them only in the most holy of their ceremonies. Even though,

  •  
  • Psilocybe semilanceata - Liberty Cap
    Psilocybe Semilanceata was first described in 1900, by Civil War veteran, Charles McIlvaine in his seminal mycological treatise “One Thousand American Fungi,” where he described the Liberty Cap and all of its “strange effects.” However, it wasn’t until 19

  •  
  • Psychotria viridis - Chacruna
    The classical principle admixtures of Ayahuasca and Yagè commonly employed throughout Amazonian Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. Related to the coffee plant in a large genus of over 700 species, Psychotria viridis is a small glabrous tree or shrub reaching 14 fo

  •  
  • Rynchosia phaseoloides - Piule
    The beautiful red and black beans of several species of Rhynchosia may have been eployed in ancient Mexico as an hallucinogenic.

  •  
  • Salvia divinorum - Diviner's Sage
    Salvia divinorum is a perennial labiate used for curing and divination by the Mazatec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico. The psychotropic effects the plant produces are compared to those of the other hallucinogens employed by the Mazatecs, the morning glory, Rive

  •  
  • Sceletium tortuosum - Kanna
    The family Mesembryanthemaceae contains many pharmacologically active species. One of the most utilized by native peoples in South Africa was the genus Sceletium(Kanna), for which whole tribes would travel hundreds of miles to pick a years supply.

  •  
  • Scirpus atrovirens - Bakana
    One of the most powerful herbs of the Tarahumara of Mexico is apparently a species of Scirpus.

  •  
  • Solandra grandiflora - Chalice Vine
    Many aboriginal Indian tribes from central Mexico and northern Central America have long believed in the magical and mysterious powers of Solandra grandiflora, (Kieli/Kieri-Plant of the god’s), some of these tribes include the Huastec, Huichol, and Mixtec

  •  
  • Tabernatnthe Iboga - Iboga
    Iboga is basic to the Bwiti cult and other secret societies in Gabon and the Congo.

  •  
  • Tanaecium nocturnum - Koribo
    This climbing vine grows natively in Central America, especially in southern Panama. It is also native to the Amazon, West Indies and the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Though this plant has not been extensively studied, there is ethnographic research detaili

  •  
  • Teltrapteris methystica - Caapi-pinima
    ANOTHER KIND OF CAAPI is prepared from Tetrapteris methistica, a forest vine also belonging to the family Malpighioceae.

  •  
  • Trichocereus pachanoi - San Pedro Cactus
    The San Pedro Cactus, or Trichocereus pachanoi, was in use at the very beginning of Andean civilization when it was highly prized as the “materia prima” (raw material) of the shamans of that era. In the central Andes district of Peru, as well as in the su

  •  
  • Virola theiodora - Cumala Tree
    Most, if not all, species of Virola have a copious red "resin" in the inner bark. The resin from a number of species is prepared as an hallucinogenic snuff or small pellets.

  •  
  • Vocanga - Vocanga
    Voacanga africana is one of the well guarded secrets of the African Magic Healers. Little is know about the actual use of the seeds and the bark of several Voacanga species (including V.africana), other than that the plant is held in high esteem for ritua

  •  
  • How to Germinate Seeds
    Great article from a great online seed vender; Alchemy Works.

  •  
  • To Save the Forest, the Trees Must Go
    In the name of science, the United States Forest Service has proposed the experimental logging of half a million acres in two forests in the Sierra Nevada...

  •  
  • The Bwiti Religion and Tabernanthe iboga
    The use of vegetable hallucinogens by humans for religious purposes is very ancient, probably even older than its use for healing, magic or teaching purposes. The profound alterations in one's state of consciousness brought about by the use of a hallucino

  •  
  • Mao Inhibitor Recipe Simplified
    This is a powerful MAO inhibitor, and should be treated VERY carefully!

  •  
  • Studies of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae),
    Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M. is one of the vision-inducing plants used by the Mazatec Indians of central Mexico. The present status of research is summarized.

  •  
  • Piper methysticum - Kava Kava
    Kava Kava is also known by the names Ava, Ava Pepper, Intoxicating Pepper, Kawa Awa, Kawa Kawa, Wati, Yogona, and Waka. This herb, a member of the pepper family, grows as a bush in the South Pacific.

  •  
  • Piper methysticum - Kava Kava
    Kava Kava is also known by the names Ava, Ava Pepper, Intoxicating Pepper, Kawa Awa, Kawa Kawa, Wati, Yogona, and Waka. This herb, a member of the pepper family, grows as a bush in the South Pacific.

  •  
  • Modern Day Shamanism in Hawaii
    Serge is doing his part to save the shaman traditions of his culture when he formed Aloha International; a world-wide network of people studying and practicing the Hawaiian shamanic traditions.

  •  
  • Use of Psychoactive Snuff in Pre-Columbian Chile
    One notable feature of the Pre-Columbian San Pedro culture is the high incidence of snuffing implements. The most common of the snuffing kits found in San Pedro de Atacama consists of a woolen bag containing a wooden rectangular snuff tray, a snuffing tub

  •  
  • A Psychedelic ‘Problem Child’ Comes Full Circle
    Upon the death of psychedelic pioneer Dr. Albert Hofmann, Benedict Carey of the Ne York Times examines the history, and the potential therapeutic future, of LSD is examined.

  •  
  • The Future of Psychedelics
    Author Daniel Pinchbeck discusses the 2008 World Psychedelic Forum held recently in Switzerland, and the potential for studying psychedelic therapies in the shifting world political climate.

  •  
  • Self-Experimenters: Psychedelic Chemist Explores the Surreality of Inner Space, One Drug at a Time
    Alexander Shulgin endured a government crackdown and hallucinations of his bones melting in pursuit of new mind-bending compounds.

  •  
  • Research On Psychedelics Moves Into The Mainstream
    In-depth article on the new, emerging studies of the psychotherapeutic uses of psychedelic drugs such as LSD, MDMA and Psilocybin.

  •  
  • Autism, ADD, ADHD and Marijuana Therapy
    Medical Marijuana research over the last six years demonstrates a link to marijuana use and alleviating symptoms of ADD, ADHD, depression, pain and other chronic conditions.

  •  
  • Psst... Government-Supplied Marijuana Program Turns 30
    May 10th marked the 30th anniversary of a little-known federal government program - referred to as a Compassionate Investigational New Drug (IND) program - which supplies medical marijuana to only a handful of patients.

  •  
  • Could an Acid Trip Cure Your OCD?
    Research intensifies into the use of psychedelics in the treatment of psychological conditions such as depression, PTSD, obsessive compulsive disorder and anxiety. Patients undergoing treatment for life-threatening diseases such as cancer are finding answ

  •  
  • Khat Out of the Bag
    A Somali national residing in London was caught with 10 kilogrammes of khat at the Malta International Airport (MIA) last week. This was the second time that the drug was discovered by the authorities in Malta. But it is well known in other parts of the w

  •  
  • The Shroom Tragedy
    Magic mushrooms are on the verge of being outlawed by the Dutch government for the usual sensationalized reasons as everywhere else.

  •  
  • The Shroom Tragedy
    Magic mushrooms are on the verge of being outlawed by the Dutch government for the usual sensationalized reasons as everywhere else.

  •  
  • Blood is Thicker Than Friends
    Fiji's interim Prime Minister Commodore Voreqe Bainimarama describes his experience with a Vanuatu kava session.

  •  
  • Incense May Relieve Depression and Anxiety Naturally
    Researchers find psychoactive link between burning frankincense incense and relieving symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  •  
  • Brazil Appeals Court Rules Drug Possession Not a Crime
    At the end of March, a Brazilian appeals court in São Paulo declared that possession of drugs for personal use is not a criminal offense. Several lower courts had previously ruled in the same way, but the ruling from the São Paulo Justice Court's 6th Crim

  •  
  • Will Harvard Drop Acid Again?
    Dr. John Halpern of Harvard University conducts research through human clinical trials into the medicinal value and applications of LSD and psilocybin. Joining forces with Halpern is Rick Doblin, founder of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedeli

  •  
  • Low-Dose Psilocybin Brings Relief To Cluster-Headache Sufferers
    Anecdotal evidence and comprehensive, scientific case studies point to successful treatment of cluster headaches with psilocybin mushrooms.

  •  
  • What Herbs May Help People With Anxiety
    Dr. Michael W. Kahn, Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, and Director of Ambulatory Psychiatry at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, discusses alternative herbal therapies for treating anxiety.

  •  
  • How the Internet Fuels the Global Psychedelic Community
    This year and the next, the United Nations will evaluate the War on Drugs. Since its official start in 1998 we have been bombed with official statistics on drug use, drug addiction, drug trafficking, street prices, courtcases and all the like. But what do

  •  
  • US Leads World in Substance Abuse, WHO Finds
    The United States leads the world in rates of experimenting with marijuana and cocaine despite strict drug laws, World Health Organization researchers said on Tuesday. Countries with looser drug laws have lower rates of abuse, the researchers report in t

  •  
  • Absinthe - Green Fairy - Wormwood
    Now that the ban on absinthe has been lifted in the United States, as well as around the rest of the world, all of us now are able to enjoy The Green Fairy again in all her psychoactive and sometimes psychedelic glory that inspired many great artists.

  •  
  • Turbina corymbosa - Ololiuqui
    Ololiuqui is the Aztec name for the seeds of certain convolvulaceous plants which have been used since prehispanic times by the Aztecs and related tribes, just as the sacred mushrooms and the cactus peyote have been used in their religious ceremonies for

  •  
  • The Land of the Lotus Smokers
    Metaphor and drug use from Homer's the Illiad and he Odyssey, and modern day use of the lotus flower in extracts and herbal blends.

  •  
  • Theobroma cacao
    Cacao truly is a "Food of the Gods", especially now that it's been clinically-proven to be extraordinaily good for our bodies. Yes, chocolate is indeed derived from cacao and has extraordinary nutritional properties, as well as psychoactive and aphrodisi

  •  
  • Might the Gods be Alkaloids?
    The question related in the title of our presentation addresses the role and use of psychoactive plants, throughout the process of human evolution, as inducers of altered states of consciousness.

  •  
  • Marc Emery, Canada's Prince of Pot
    In November 2002, Cannabis Culture publisher Marc Emery completed his second run for Mayor of Vancouver, Canada's West Coast cannabis capital. The renowned pot seed merchant placed fifth on the crowded ballot, participating in all major debates and campai

  •  
  • Who Will Be Obama’s Pick For ‘Drug Czar’?
    by Allen St. Pierre, NORML Executive Director.

  •  
  • Healing and Regenerative Effects of Ayahuasca
    One writer's personal journey into healing and self-awareness at Camp Ayahuasca.

  •  
  • Russia Bans Blue Lotus Smoking Blends
    Light drugs are still available in free sale in Russia despite the official decree issued by Surgeon General Gennady Onischenko. One can purchase a blend of dry herbs in specialized shops. Dope sellers assure their customers that their products are absolu

  •  
  • Russia Bans Blue Lotus Smoking Blends
    Light drugs are still available in free sale in Russia despite the official decree issued by Surgeon General Gennady Onischenko. One can purchase a blend of dry herbs in specialized shops. Dope sellers assure their customers that their products are absolu

  •  
  • Ancient Psychoactive Incense and Preparations
    Psychoactive incense has been known about and used for thousands of years; Over time and after many trials mankind has discovered that a potent hallucinogenic incense could be made by combining several different plants, resins, bark and roots.Although the

  •  
  • Ancient Psychoactive Incense and Preparations
    Psychoactive incense has been known about and used for thousands of years; Over time and after many trials mankind has discovered that a potent hallucinogenic incense could be made by combining several different plants, resins, bark and roots.Although the

  •  
  • The God Chemical: Brain Chemistry And Mysticism
    Barbara Bradley Hagerty discusses the latest in brain research and the use of entheogens to induce spiritual states of mind in the laboratory. Topics covered include: Peyote ceremonies, lessons learned from scientific studies of LSD's effect on the brain,

  •  
  • Marijuana Kills Brain Cancer Cells
    The study showed, conclusively, that THC (the active alkaloid in Cannabis) caused brain cancer cells to undergo a process called autophagy. This process causes cells to feed upon themselves, thereby destroying them, and not only did researchers witness t

  •  
  • Spiritual Effects Of Psilocybin In Sacred Mushrooms
    In a follow-up to research showing that psilocybin, a substance contained in "sacred mushrooms," produces substantial spiritual effects, a Johns Hopkins team reports that those effects appear to last more than a year. Writing in the Journal of Psychopharm

  •  
  • Oldest Christian Bible - Let Translations Begin!
    The early work known as the Codex Sinaiticus has been housed in four separate locations across the world for more than 150 years. Starting Monday, it became available for perusal on the Web. Scot McKendrick, head of Western manuscripts at the British Libr

  •  
  • Salvia on Schedule: Detriment to Research
    Scientific American explains how the scheduling the mind-altering herb as a controlled substance could slow medical research. This is not news, but the fact that Scientific American published this article is.

  •  

Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Mandragora
Species: officinarum
Common Names: Abu'l-ruh (Old Arabic, "master of the life breath"), abu-roh, adam koku, adamova golowa (Russian, "Adam's head"), alrauinwortel (Dutch), alraun, alraune, alraunwurzel, alrune (Swedish), althergis, antimelon ("in the apple's place"), antimenion (Greek, "counter rage"), apemum (Egyptian/Coptic), archine, astrang-dastam harysh, atzmann, baaras (Hebrew, "the fire"), bayd al-jinn (modern Arabic, "testes of the demon"), bhagner, bid-l-gul, bombochylos (Greek, "a juice that produces dull sounds"), ciceron (Roman, "plant of Circe"), Circe's plant, diamonon, dirkaia, dollwurz, drachenpuppe, dudaim, dukkeurt (Danish, "mad root"), folterknechtwurzel, giatya bruz, hemionus, henkerswurzel, hundsapfel, hunguruk koku, kamaros (Greek, "subject to fate"), kindleinkraut, kirkaia ("plant of Circe"), lakhashmana, lakmuni, lebruj, liebesapfel, liebeswurzel, love apple, lufahat, luffah manganin (Arabic, "mad apple"), luffat, main de gloire (French), mala canina (Roman, "dog apple"), mala terrestria (Roman, "earth apple"), mandraghorah, mandragora, mandragore, mandrake, mannikin (Belgian, "little man"), mano di gloria, mardami, mardom ghiah (Persian, "man's plant"), mardum-gia (ancient Persian, "man plant"), matragun (Romanian, "witch's drink"), matraguna, matryguna (Galician), mehr-egiah (Persian, "love plant"), mela canina (Italian, "dog apple"), menschenwurzel, minos, namtar ira (Assyrian, "the male [plant] of the god of the plagues"), natragulya (Hungarian), Oriental mandrake, pevenka trava (Russian, "the plant that screams"), pisdiefje (Dutch), planta semihominis (Roman, "half-man plant"), pomo di cane (Italian, "dog apple"), putrada, rakta vindu, rrm.t (Egyptian), Satan's apple, siradsch elkutrhrub (Andalusian Arabic, "root of the demon El-sherif"), sirag al qutr (Arabic), sirag el-kotrub (Arabic/Palestine, "devil's lamp"), taraiba, taraila (Morocco), tepillalilonipatli, thridakias, tufah al-jinn (modern Arabic, "apple of the demon"), tufah al-Majnun (Arabic, "[love] apple of Majnun"), tufhac el sheitan (Arabic, "apple of the devil"), womandrake (English), yabrough (Syrian Arabic, "life giver"), yabruh (Arabic), ya pu lu (Chinese), yavruchin (Aramaic), yubru-jussanam, zauberwurzel

Mandragora officinarum, or mandrake, is most famous for its root, which can grow up to 100cm (39”), and often takes on an unusual shape. It is a perennial plant whose lengthy and wide leaves grow directly from its roots once each spring. These leaves form a rosette, from the center of which bell-shaped blue or violet flowers grow, making this rosette uniquely identifiable to the mandrake. At all other times throughout the year, the plant is hidden underground. The mandrake also produces yellow berries that smell fruity but are more similar in flavor to tomatoes, and its leaves smell much like fresh tobacco.

The mandrake holds a special place as the most famous of all magical plants, due to its many magical and medical uses and the immense amount of mythology it has generated.

Historians have determined that the earliest mention of the mandrake refers to its use in Babylon; various records are contained in the cuneiform tablets of the Assyrians and the Old Testament. The earliest evidence of ritualistic use occurs in an Ugaritic cuneiform text from Ras Shamra, dated between the fifteenth to fourteenth century B.C.E. There is also evidence in Mesopotamian cuneiform texts that mandrake root was combined with wine to create a psychoactive beverage called "cow's eye". This unusual name can probably be attributed to the dilating effect this concoction had on the pupils.

Ornamentation involving mandrake root was found in the grave of Tutankhamen in Egypt; the plant began to appear widely there after it was brought from Palestine during Egypt's Eighteenth Dynasty. It became popular as a houseplant and as part of sacred gardens devoted to the goddess Hathor. The yellow fruits were also mentioned frequently in Pharonic art and in love songs of the New Kingdom.

There are some instances of the mandrake in ancient Greek poetry and comedy, most particularly in the writings of Lucian and Alexis. 

Ancient Germanic peoples also made use of the plant, especially their seeresses, who were known for their clairvoyant abilities far outside of Europe. The modern German name alraune can be traced back to the ancient Germanic term "Alrun", which translates to "all knowing" or "he who knows the runes". The demonization of mandrake begun once Germany became dominated by Christianity.

In the Middle Ages, mandrake was often counterfeited due to its popularity as a talisman. This trend continued even up until the previous century.

In more modern but still historic times, there have been many notable mentions of the mandrake by well-known authors, including Machiavelli, Shakespeare, Goethe, and Flaubert.

Closer to our own era, there have been several telling instances of the mandrake in comic illustrations, including in an early Smurfs comic from 1979. This can perhaps be attributed to comic authors' and readers' fascination with the magic and the occult, and mandrake's rich history in that realm. Various psychedelic rock bands have incorporated mandrake lore into their works as well, including Deep Purple and Gong.

Despite mandrake's rich history, it has become less significant in modern times, apart from the scant few references listed above. This is mostly due to its lack of availability. It has not attained a prominent place in subcultures that use psychoactive plants, and it has never been the subject of a modern scientific study.

TRADITIONAL USE: Although we have very few details due to the poor quality of the available sources, it is clear that in ancient times, the mandrake was most heavily utilized by erotic cults.

It's widely believed that the Old Testament contains multiple references to the "love apples" (fruits) of the mandrake as an aphrodisiac (though some disagree that the Old Hebrew term in question actually does translate to "mandrake"). The first of these instances is in Genesis, wherein the scent of the mandrake's yellow fruits were described as having aphrodisiac properties. These fruits are still prized today as aphrodisiacs in the Near East.

Some evidence exists that the mandrake was used in secret mystical rites in ancient Israel; one of the factors supporting this hypothesis is the significance of the mandrake in kabbalism as a symbol for "becoming one." Similarly, in ancient Egypt it appears that mandrake fruits may have been eaten as aphrodisiacs.

The ancient Greeks also used the mandrake as a sacred love plant. Records left by the botanist Theophrastus indicate that there was an elaborate ritual even for its collection, enacted under the auspices of the love goddess Aphrodite.

Elephants have even been observed eating mandrake directly before copulation.

Several accounts also exist throughout various ancient cultures of the mandrake root's use as a protective amulet. It has been carved into anthropomorphic  "mandrake men", and in shamanic societies that were influenced by Christianity, it has even been made into crucifixes. Some of these latter specimens are still on display in certain churches throughout these regions.

TRADITIONAL PREPARATION: Burning and inhaling the smoke of the mandrake is the least effective method of experiencing its psychoactive properties. The leaves are picked before the end of the fruiting season, dried in the shade, and used in a smoking blend (either with tobacco or other herbs) or as incense. The root works as incense as well; the smoke is rather easy to inhale, although its smell is not entirely pleasant.

Fresh leaves can also be chewed, and fresh mandrake fruits can be consumed. Consuming fresh mandrake fruits is incredibly safe; there have been no known overdoses even after consuming multiple fruits.

The root is hardly ever eaten. It is mostly extracted either into water or alcohol; it is about as effectively extracted into the former as it is the latter.

Since ancient times, tinctures have been made and consumed after being added to water. Today, a therapeutic dosage is considered to be fifteen - thirty drops, and an aphrodisiac/psychoactive dosage thirty - fifty drops. 

Mandrake root has long been implemented in the making of beer and wine, either as an additive or the basis of the fermentation. When mandrake root is the main ingredient in the brewing process, cinnamon and saffron are sometimes added to improve its taste. Mandrake beer is quite potent, with dosages rarely exceeding one liter--drink with caution!

The ancient Greeks used fresh or dried mandrake in wine as an aphrodisiac. To make mandrake wine, add a handful of chopped mandrake root to a .75 liter bottle of wine and steep for a week. For maximum potency, it is best not to filter the root pieces out until the wine is gone, and the more sour the wine, the more effective the extraction. Two or three cinnamon sticks and a tablespoon of saffron can be added to improve the flavor.

Another popular recipe involves chopping up a large handful each of cinnamon sticks, rhubarb root, vanilla pods, and mandrake root, and steeping in a bottle of white wine for two weeks. The plant matter is then drained, and is then colored with St. John’s wort or saffron and sweetened if desired, most effectively with a combination of royal jelly and honey.

The spirits are also an effective choice for mixing with mandrake. The only place in the world where this practice is still prevalent is Romania.

MEDICINAL USE: It has been said that the mandrake had perhaps the greatest number of uses of any medicinal plant of ancient times. It was variously used as a an analgesic/anesthetic, abortifacient, antidote, aphrodisiac, inebriant, and as a sleeping agent. And indeed, it was the most heavily utilized narcotic/anesthetic of ancient/late ancient times and into the Middle Ages.

Specifically, mandrake root was used for the following conditions: abscesses, arthritis, bone pains, callosities, cramps, discharge, erysipelas, eye disease and inflammation, gout, headaches, hemorrhoids, hip pains, hysteria, infertility, inflammation, labor complications, liver pains, loss of speech, melancholy, menstrual problems, pain, painful joints, possession, scrofula, skin inflammation, sleeplessness, snakebite, spleen pains, stomach ailments, swollen glands, tubercles, tumors, ulcers, uterine inflammation, worms, and wounds. It was also used as a treatment for anxiety and depression.

Mandrake was used by the ancient Assyrians in two main medical contexts: an analgesic and an anesthetic. More specifically, mandrake was commonly used as a treatment for toothaches, childbirth complications, hemorrhoids, and stomach ailments. This latter use involved adding powdered root to beer.

Since at least the New Kingdom in Egypt, mandrake has been used there medicinally. There is some evidence to indicate that its use goes back even further to ca. 1600 b.c.e. as a cure for pend worms, pain, skin inflammations, and bone pain. It was also used as a skin cream and joint stabilizer, and to treat a “sick tongue”.

The Hippocratics in ancient Greece used mandrake as a cure for melancholy. Aristotle categorized it as a sleeping agent, while Plato described it as a powerful anesthetic. The physician Aretaios used it for this purpose when performing surgery. Another physician and scientist, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, used mandrake fruits as sedatives, and root extract as a cure for runny eyes and toothaches.

Early medieval Persian manuscripts show that they used mandrake as sleeping aid, along with hemp and opium.

Within the realm of Romanian, Russian, and European folk medicine, mandrake has often been used as part of a salve to treat skin ailments externally. The fresh leaves are also chewed to ward off pain from toothaches, while the smoke from burning dried leaves is inhaled to help with coughs and headaches.

Homeopathic physicians prescribe mandrake for headaches (and certian other maladies) as well, but in the form of root extractions.

Brandy infused with mandrake root is said to be effective in combating the sympotms of chronic rheumatism.

TRADITIONAL EFFECTS: Surprisingly, there are not many accounts from the modern era of experience with the mandrake.

The ancient lexicographer Suidas noted mandrake's "hypnotic" effects, while Hildegard von Bingen claimed it produced "illusions".  

In 1950's, one experiential report described mandrake as bringing on "inebriation, narcosis, hallucinations, visions".

More modern research, including within the realm of homeopathy, has shown that the effects of mandrake are very similar to belladonna, including the following clinical symptoms: dry mouth, nose, and throat; muscular atony; an increase in pulse frequency; eye issues such as farsightedness and pupil dilation; and the immediate short-term memory loss.

Other modern accounts with mandrake wine describe a more enjoyable experience, including sensations of pleasure coursing through the body, a mild euphoria, and dream activity, with a greater frequency of sexually oriented dreams. Slight cranial pressure and visual hallucinations can occur. An increased proclivity towards music, particularly rhythm, has been noted, as has a diminished sense of ego. Farsightedness and dry mouth are both reportedly very mild. The sensations begin roughly 15 - 20 minutes after consumption, and the effects of the alcohol are negligible. 

More recent accounts of the consumption of mandrake fruits, on the other hand, do not contain any mention of direct psychoactive effects, but an increase of erotic dreams has been noted.

REFERENCES

Grieve, Maud. "Mandrake." A Modern Herbal. 1931. Web. 6 Dec. 2009 < http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mandra10.html>.

Ratsch, Christian. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press, 2005. Print.

Powered By Traffic Booster Absolute News Manager Plug-in by Xigla Software

This article has been moved here