Bookmark and Share








History of Sceletium tortuosum (Kanna)
- by Keith Edley

During the early seventeenth century, reports from missionaries and explorers in southern Africa described how the Khoikhoi, an indigenous tribe native to the region also known colloquially as Hottentots to white colonists, would chew, sniff or smoke an inebriant that was locally known as kanna.

The fervor with which the Hottentots smoked kanna was noted by all the early travelers to the region. It was only speculation that this “tobacco” identified as kanna by the Hottentots was Sceletium tortuosum since, unfortunately, most of the reports on its use neglected to provide any actual information about the botanical source of the tribe’s kanna.

It was not until the end of the nineteenth century that it started to be suggested that the inebriant kanna of the Hottentots may have actually come from Mesembry anthemum, for these species also were then still known by the name “kanna” in South Africa. Reports of the effects of experimentation with Mesembry anthemum that were experienced at the time by early psychonaut explorers, however, found that they were not nearly as dramatic and inebriating as it had originally been hoped.

At around the same time, it was already being suggested that the species in question was actually Sceletium tortuosum. It was only as recently as the early 1990s that the first actual ethnobotanical evidence of the psychoactive use of Sceletium tortuosum was attained, just a little over a decade ago. Kanna is now identified as Sceletium tortuosum, and is also known by other popular names such as kougoed, canna, canna-root, channa, gunna and tortuose fig-marigold, depending on its region of origin within South Africa.

The plant occurs only in South Africa, in the so-called kanna land. Sceletium tortuosum and other Sceletium species became more and more rare in South Africa, and were increasingly difficult to find for indigenous tribes.  In contemporary South Africa, kanna is now used primarily as an agent of pleasure; it is used as a party drug in the same way that Cannabis sativa is used in Western society.

Kanna is the same name used by the South African Bushman that they use for the Eland Antelope. The eland, or the kanna, is regarded as a “trance animal” of extraordinary abilities. Since pre-historic times, the eland antelope has played a central role as a magical ally in many ceremonies and was closely associated both with the rain makers and with divination rituals, healing practices, and communal trance dances. The plant kanna, or Sceletium tortuosum, appears to have been used as part of these rituals.

The Hottentots apparently chewed kanna for their ritual and healing dances or smoked it together with dagga (Cannabis sativa). Like the South African Bushman, the Hottentots also used the name kanna for the magical eland antelope which they also incorporated in numerous rituals.

This herbaceous plant, which closely resembles the modern-day, leaf succulent house plant chicks and hens, grows as tall as six inches. It has fleshy roots, a smooth and thickset stalk, and low-growing branches that spread out laterally. The thick, angular, fleshy leaves do not have stalks but are attached directly to the branches. Its pale yellow flowers are approximately one to one and one-half inches across and are attached to the ends of the branches. The plant produces angular-shaped fruits with small seeds.

Kanna is more popularly known today as Kougoed, and is easily confused with other members of the genus Sceletium. Those species that not only look similar but also have comparable effects and contain the same active constituent (mesembrine) as kougoed, and are also presumably referred to as kougoed and used in the same manner.

The leaves and stalks of the plant contain mesembrine, along with lower levels of mesembrinine and totuosamine. The leaves also appear to contain oxalic acid. It is also possible that tryptamines may occur in the plant as well.

The traditional method for preparing kougoed has only recently been discovered and described in great detail. The plant material – which should be collected in October, when the plant is at its most potent – is harvested, crushed between two rocks, and allowed to ferment for a few days in a closed container. At one time, animal skins or hemp bags were used for this purpose, but plastic bags are now used in their place.

The first step entails setting the bag filled with the plant material in the sun. During the day, the plant will excrete its juice, which condenses on the plastic and is later reabsorbed by the plant material. During the night, the material cools. This process is repeated for two to three days. On the last day of this stage of the process, the bag is opened before the plant’s juices are reabsorbed and the contents are stirred well. Then the bag is then resealed and placed outside again for another five days.

On the eighth day after this procedure started, the kougoed is taken from the bag and spread out to dry in the sun. It can be used as soon as it is dried. According to informants, the fresh leaves do not have any potency; only the fermented plant is psychoactive. The kougoed is now either chopped or ground into a fine powder.

This process presumably helps to substantially reduce the high content of oxalic acid that is characteristic of the genera Sceletium and Mesembryanthemum. Oxalic acid can produce severe irritation and allergies. A more hurried method involves simply toasting a fresh plant on glowing charcoals until it has completely dried and then grinding the result into powder form.

The powder in usually taken orally, combined with a small amount of alcohol, and held in the mouth for about ten minutes. The saliva that collects can be swallowed. Two grams of the powder produces a sense of serene calm in about thirty minutes; approximately five grams of the powder is a dosage sufficient to relieve acute anxiety. Users of kougoed describe the significant effects of small doses as relieving anxiety and stress, deepening their sense of social connection, an increase in self-confidence, and a dissolution of inhibitions and feelings of inferiority. Higher doses can lead to more intense effects such as euphoria and hallucinations.

The chopped plant material can be smoked alone or in combination in combination with Cannabis sativa. The finely ground powder ostensibly can be also be sniffed, either alone or mixed with tobacco. The higher dosage levels, especially when combined with Cannabis sativa and alcohol, usually whiskey, can produce hallucinations and enhanced visual acuity. Chewing kougoed shortly after smoking Cannabis can considerably potentiate the effects of hemp. Kougoed suppresses both the effects of tobacco and the craving for nicotine.

Other reports confirm that kougoed induces feelings of euphoria and deep meditative tranquility. Subjects report that the relaxation induced by kougoed enables one to focus on inner thoughts and feelings, and enables one to intensely concentrate on the beauty of nature. Some subjects describe elevated sensations of the skin to fine touch, as well as sexual arousal.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: The Kanna Shop (They don't actually sell Kanna)

KANNA PRODUCTS: Shaman's Garden OR IAmShaman

Related Articles :
  • Sceletium tortuosum - Kanna ()
    The family Mesembryanthemaceae contains many pharmacologically active species. One of the most utilized by native peoples in South Africa was the genus Sceletium(Kanna), for which whole tribes would travel hundreds of miles to pick a years supply.
  • Empathogenic Effects of Sceletium tortuosum ()
    As far as being a potentiator of cannabis, there is no doubt that sceletium has this effect. Much more was gotten from much less when sceletium was added. Overall, it is my opinion that the pleasant effects of this substance, when used in moderation far outweigh the negative ones. Furthermore, the effects on cannabis potentiation are marked.
Email This Article To A Friend - Print This Article
Articles can be E-mailed to a friend and you can get a printable version of the article
IMPORTANT: We provide all information for educational purposes only, and endorse or recommend nothing here.
A special thanks to Keith for all his support and insight.
Search Content :